Prof Edmundas K. Prof Vytautas J. E-mail: P. Aliawdin ib.
E-mail: simbirkin hotmail. E-mail: toropov altair. The paper presents results of large-scale tests carried out on masonry wall panels made of perforated bricks.
The specimens were subjected to in-plane: lateral loading combined with different levels of axial compression; concen- trated compressive load applied to the wall top at different distances from the wall edge. Relationships between shear strength and deformability of masonry and compressive stresses perpendicular to the shear plane have been found. An evaluation of strength of masonry under local compression is given depending on the position of the concentrated load relative to the wall edge.
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Analysis of test results and comparison of calculation techniques adopted in different design codes is performed. Behaviour of the test specimens is modelled using the finite element method. Keywords: masonry structures, full-scale tests, shear, compression, strength, deformations. Introduction 2. However, there are a few test 88 mm with vertical holes.
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Brick advantages. The strength properties of the brick and mortar were For each loading type, two test series have been determined experimentally. Their mean values are pre- devised.
In the local compression tests, position of the sented in Table 1. In the shear tests, lateral force was combined with different levels of axial compression.
Table 1. Brick and mortar strengths In the first case, vertical kinematic restraints were in- stalled on the wall top to prevent in-plane rotation of the Brick strength, MPa walls. The vertical pressure arising in this case varied Compressive b y British Tensile b y testing b ricks during the loading process and had the minimum value.
Standard BS , for b ending In the second case, the lateral load was combined with appendix D the given vertical compression.
The loading of the specimens was increased mono- tonically up to the total failure of the specimens. The Mortar strength, MPa resistance of the masonry walls to the predominant ac- tion was evaluated with reference to the strength and Compressive b y testing Shear b y testing a masonry cub es of side 70,7 mm fragment of three b ricks deformability.
The strains measured in this way were used σ is the mean compressive stress in the test speci- to calculate the deformation modulus and the Poissons mens; ratio of the masonry. Its mean value was 9,9 MPa. Averaged curves for strains, secant deformation modulus, and Poissons ratio of the masonry are pre- 3. Response to shear sented in Fig 1.
Shear tests were performed on six wall panels that were produced of the masonry with the chain bond. The à overall dimensions of the specimens were as follows: 1 length mm, height mm, thickness mm, 0,8 with the thickness of mortar joints of 10 to 12 mm.
The tests were carried out at an age of the speci- longitudinal strain lateral strain mens 19 to 25 days after the mortar achieved the com- 0,2 elongation shortening pressive strength of 10 MPa. The specimens of the first series series 1A were ε× tested fct strategijos prekybos ltd incremental lateral load P, applied to the top b of the panel in its plane, combined with minimal vertical 0,6 pressure that was necessary to prevent in-plane rotation 0,5 of the wall.
In addition, displacement transduc- ers were used to measure translation of the horizontal E secMPa support and detachment caused by a compliantly re- c strained rotation of the wall in its plane. Their readings fct strategijos prekybos ltd were taken into account for calculation fct strategijos prekybos ltd the clear 0,5 lateral deflections by correcting the values obtained by LVDTs Th1 Th5.
This load did not vary 0,00 0,05 0,10 0,15 0,20 0,25 during the testing.
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The load P was applied to four top Poisson's ratio rows of bricks, and displacements were measured only at one level at a height of mm from the wall bot- Fig 1. Shear test setup along the wall diagonal connecting the lateral loading point and the horizontal support Fig 3, a.
The failure lateral load was equal to: ,0 kN for the first speci- men, ,8 kN for the second specimen, and 80,0 kN for the third one.
At the Fig 3. Crack patterns after testing general views binarinių opcionų prekybos etrade ultimate stage, average total value of the compressive local failure at horizontal support load q was equal to kN. Experimental graphs showing the deforming process cracks were observed, and a local failure at the horizon- of the series 1A specimens are presented in Fig 4.
The ultimate failure The walls of the dvejetainiai variantai twitter 1B having been tested for lateral load was equal to: ,0 kN for the first speci- combined shear and compression failed also with an in- men, ,7 kN for the second specimen, and ,0 kN clined crack connecting the lateral loading point and the for the third one.
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The failure lateral load averaged over horizontal support. The wall panels are modelled with 0 5 10 15 20 25 highly accurate hybrid plane stress elements mesh 30x30 Lateral displacement, mm derived using a Reissner functional .
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Second order geometrical effects and unilateral elastic supports are b taken into account. As an example, Fig 6 shows some 0,8 analysis results for the specimens of series 1A.